Basic Pod CPU and Memory Management

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We will create four pods:

  • A request pod with Request cpu = 0.5 and memory = 1G
  • A limit-cpu pod with Limit cpu = 0.5 and memory = 1G
  • A limit-memory pod with Limit cpu = 1 and memory = 1G
  • A restricted pod with Request of cpu = 1/memory = 1G and Limit cpu = 1.8/memory=2G

Deploy Pods

In order to generate cpu and memory load, we will use stress-ng with the following flags:

  • vm-keep: maintain consistent memory usage
  • vm-bytes: bytes given to each worker
  • vm: number of workers to spawn ex. vm=1 uses 1000m CPU vm=2 uses 2000m CPU
  • oomable: will not respawn after being killed by OOM killer
  • verbose: show all information output
  • timeout: length of test
# Deploy request pod with soft limit on memory 
kubectl run --requests=memory=1G,cpu=0.5 --image  hande007/stress-ng basic-request-pod --restart=Never --  --vm-keep  --vm-bytes 2g --timeout 600s --vm 1 --oomable --verbose 

# Deploy limit-cpu pod with hard limit on cpu at 500m but wants 1000m
kubectl run --limits=memory=1G,cpu=0.5 --image  hande007/stress-ng basic-limit-cpu-pod --restart=Never --  --vm-keep --vm-bytes 512m --timeout 600s --vm 1 --oomable --verbose 

# Deploy limit-memory pod with hard limit on memory at 1G but wants 2G
kubectl run --limits=memory=1G,cpu=1 --image  hande007/stress-ng basic-limit-memory-pod --restart=Never --  --vm-keep  --vm-bytes 2g --timeout 600s --vm 1 --oomable --verbose 

# Deploy restricted pod with limits and requests that wants cpu 2 and memory 1G
kubectl run --requests=memory=1G,cpu=1 --limits=memory=2G,cpu=1.8 --image  hande007/stress-ng basic-restricted-pod  --restart=Never --  --vm-keep  --vm-bytes 1g --timeout 600s --vm 2 --oomable --verbose 

Flag –requests has been deprecated, has no effect and will be removed in the future.
Flag –limits has been deprecated, has no effect and will be removed in the future.
You can ignore this warning as these flags will be deprecated in future release

Verify Current Resource Usage

Check that pods are running properly. It is expected that basic-limit-memory-pod will not run due to it asking for 2G of memory when it is assigned a Limit of 1G:

kubectl get pod


NAME                     READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
basic-limit-cpu-pod      1/1     Running     0          69s
basic-limit-memory-pod   0/1     OOMKilled   0          68s
basic-request-pod        1/1     Running     0          68s
basic-restricted-pod     1/1     Running     0          67s

Next we check the current utilization:

# After at least 60 seconds of generating metrics
kubectl top pod


NAME                   CPU(cores)   MEMORY(bytes)   
basic-limit-cpu-pod    501m         516Mi           
basic-request-pod      1000m        2055Mi          
basic-restricted-pod   1795m        1029Mi 

Running multiple stress-ng on the same node will consume less CPU per pod. For example if the expected CPU is 1000m but only running 505m there may be other pods on the nodes consuming CPU.

Kubernetes Requests and Limits can be applied to higher level abstractions like Deployment.

Expand here to see the example


Clean up the pods before moving on to free up resources:

kubectl delete pod basic-request-pod
kubectl delete pod basic-limit-memory-pod
kubectl delete pod basic-limit-cpu-pod
kubectl delete pod basic-restricted-pod